What is melanomaMelanoma is called a malignant tumor that arises from cells - melanocytes. Most often melanoma is dark - brown or black because of the substance of melanin, which is produced by melanocytes. In comparison with basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma more serious disease and less widespread.
In most clinical cases of melanoma were found on the body of white men and on the legs in white women, but the swelling can occur in people with different types of skin and other body parts. It is believed that people with dark skin are less susceptible to the risk of melanoma. However, even they have this disease can occur on the palms, soles of the feet, and even under the fingernails. Very rarely melanoma appears in places not covered by skin, i.e., on mucous eyes in the oral cavity, vagina, colon, as well as internal organs.
Melanoma, like other cancers, is curable in its early stages. But its main difference is, that it often spreads to other parts of the body.
Disease melanoma statisticsmelanoma and melanoma tumors were the most commonly occurring cancer types the total number of more than 50% of all tumor diseases. Approximately 4% of all skin cancers accounted for melanoma, but its effects cause 79% of all deaths from skin cancer.
As of 2002 only in Russia it was revealed 6606 cases of melanoma. More often than not ill at the age of 75 to 84 years. In the US in 2004 revealed 55,100 cases of melanoma. Every year the US among the number of detected melanomas grew by 6% of the white population. In 2004 it recorded 7,910 deaths from the disease. Since 1973 the death rate caused by the effects of melanoma increased by 50%.
What factors increase the risk of melanomaEach species has its own cancer risk factors such as smoking - a risk factor for diseases such as lung cancer, oral cavity and larynx. But do not argue that the existence of such risk factors or more of these factors necessarily lead to the emergence of this disease.
The following risk factors for melanoma are basic:Nevi, ie birthmarks are benign melanotic tumors. They exist from birth, but begin to appear in children and adolescents. There are several types of nevi, which predispose to the disease.
Dysplastic nevi or atypical mole, is one of those species that increase the risk of melanoma. Dysplastic nevi are very similar, and the usual moles, and melanoma. As a rule, they are located at places unprotected from the sun, but can also be located in closed areas of the body, for example, on the buttocks or closed hair of the head. On the size of dysplastic nevi, more than normal moles and may be multiple. Often several family members have dysplastic nevi. In patients with dysplastic nevus risk of melanoma is 6 to 10%.
Not dysplastic and non-congenital nevi are rare turn into melanoma, but people have many moles larger sizes such risk is still podverzheny.Svetlaya skin, freckles and blond hair. Among white people compared to blacks the risk of melanoma is 20 times higher. The risk of developing melanoma is increased in people with blue-eyed blond hair, having a lot of freckles on the skin. However, melanoma can occur in any person, regardless of the color of his skin, especially in areas of the body such as hands, feet, under the nails, in the oral cavity and internal organs.