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Melanoma. Reasons for the development and symptoms of the disease

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Melanoma. Reasons for the development and symptoms of the disease

What is malanoma.

Melanoma. Malignancy, which are a source of epidermal melanocytes or pigment nevi (moles). Melanocytes produce melanin specific protein, which, in turn, is responsible for the color of eyes, hair and human skin tones, respectively, the typical localization of melanoma - skin, rarely retina eyes, mucous membranes. Progressive tumor invades through layers of the skin, affecting organs, tissue and lymph nodes.


Some statistics

The frequency of melanoma is 1% of all cancer pathology. For every 100,000 population accounts for about 15 people, patients with melanoma. As a rule, the disease are more prone to middle-aged women (30-50 years) than men. Recently, melanoma is much 'rejuvenated', as indicated by the cases of cancer in children and young adults (15-25 years). In 70% of cases the cause of melanoma was harmless at first glance, a mole.


What causes melanoma

In spite of the rapidly evolving medicine, it was not possible to establish the exact causes of cancer. However, there are a number of etiological factors, the presence of which significantly increases the risk of developing melanoma.

The most dangerous factors include:

- ultraviolet radiation;
- trauma of nevi available on the body;
- presence on the body of more than 50 pigmented nevi;
- hormonal disorders in the body;
- hereditary factor (cases of melanoma in close relatives);
- Dyubreya melasma (a precancerous condition).

Owners of light skin, freckles and age spots on the body should avoid prolonged exposure to the rays of the scorching sun, as innocuous desire to have a bronze tan can cause the development of malignant process.

"Familiar and removed the mole got cancer" - such stories are familiar to anyone who has at least one mole and worried about his health on the body. In fact, injury or removal of moles can not influence the development of the malignant process, if the mole is not primarily a malignancy. In case of accidental injury of melanoma at an early stage, the tumor begins to grow rapidly through the skin grows and spreads, thereby reducing the chances of recovery. Therefore, any nevus that was injured, should be histologically examined for the presence of atypical tumor cells.


How to recognize a melanoma

The main signs of rebirth in melanoma nevus:

- asymmetry (irregular shape)?
- rough, jagged edges, fuzzy contours;
- uneven coloring (includes light and dark areas);
- the formation of more than 6 mm in diameter;
- pain, itching, bleeding, and education;
- changing education for the last time in the size and color;
- redness, infiltration of surrounding tissues.

In the presence of one of these features, you should consult a dermatologist oncologist.

Previously it was believed that nevus removal can trigger the development of malignant tumors. To date, this opinion is erroneous recognized as the removal of border nevi is the primary method of prevention of melanoma.

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